1. Shoot - Citizen soldiers must be proficient and able to accurately engage targets, with both their own weapon systems and also must be proficient in the use of the most popular combat weapon systems. As mentioned above, I recommend all college students take ROTC as an elective course to become proficient in the M4 Carbine and crew served weapons. If an individual does not own a specific type of weapon and does not have access to formal training, group trainers must allocate time for weapon training opportunities for those individuals to be crossed trained. All individuals must be able to determine the best weapon-ammunition combination to achieve the desired effect on a threat force, to include range and ammunition type for the best target penetration. To make this choice, individuals must know the characteristics, capabilities, and vulnerabilities of their available weapon systems. This means understanding the fundamental characteristics of the weapon’s range, ammunition (trajectory), and enemy targets (point or area). By knowing a weapons range and ammunition capabilities, individuals will expend a minimum amount of ammunition to create the intended damage. Finally, individuals must understand the nature of targets, terrain, and effects.
2. Move - Tactical movement is inherent in all Infantry operations. Movement is multifaceted, ranging from dismounted, to mounted, and is conducted in varying physical environments, including the urban environment. For the individual, movement is comprised of the individual movement techniques (IMT) of High Crawl, Low Crawl, and 3-5 Second Rush; for the unit it is comprised of Movement Formations, Movement Techniques, and Maneuver (fire and movement). Mastering the many aspects of tactical movement is fundamental. More importantly, Infantryman/citizen soldiers must be thoroughly trained in the critical transition from tactical movement to maneuver. Understanding the terrain is critical to applying the fundamental of the particulars of shoot and move. There are four basic terrain-related skills. First, the leader must know how to land navigate, mounted and dismounted, day and night, using the latest technology (global positioning systems). Second, leaders need to understand the basics of how to analyze the military aspects of terrain, Observation and fields of fire, Avenues of approach, Key and decisive terrain, Obstacles, Cover and concealment. (OAKOC). Third, once they understand how to look at the terrain in detail, leaders must understand how to integrate the aspects of fire (direct and indirect) and tactical movement to fit
the terrain. Fourth, leaders must understand how to apply generic tactics and techniques to the unique terrain they are in, because understanding and appreciating terrain is an essential leader skill.
3. Communicate - Communicate to provide accurate and timely information to those who need it. Current and accurate information is necessary to successfully execute combat operations. It enables leaders to achieve situational understanding, make decisions, and give orders. There are two aspects of communication: the technical means used to communicate; and the procedures used for reporting and disseminating information. The individual’s and leader's ability to use information to assess the situation, make decisions, and direct necessary actions are also significant aspects in the communication process.
4. Survive - To fully contribute to the mission, individuals must be able to survive. There are three aspects to surviving: the Enemy; the Environment; and the Individual’s Body. Survival is both a personal responsibility and a group responsibility. These aspects require individuals to discipline themselves in routine matters such as maintaining local security, maintaining field sanitation, caring for their bodies, and caring for their equipment. It also requires individuals to know how to respond to extraordinary circumstances such as dealing with casualties or functioning in a contaminated environment. Soldiers must know about the protective properties of their personal gear and combat vehicles, the effects of weapon systems and munitions, and how to build survivability positions. In short, Soldiers must do everything possible for the security and protection of themselves, their equipment, and their fellow Soldiers. In the same way, leaders must do everything possible to ensure the security and protection of their units.
5. Sustain - Sustainment is an inherent feature in all operations. In order to shoot, ammunition is needed. Fuel and repair parts are needed for movement, and batteries are needed to communicate. To survive, the individual needs food and water. Individuals and leaders need to forecast requirements before they need them, while at the same time managing the group member's individual load.