Available, Civil Considerations) situation.
Breaching Fundamentals (SOSRA)
1. Suppress - Suppression is a tactical task used to employ direct or indirect fires or an electronic attack on enemy personnel, weapons, or equipment to prevent or degrade enemy fires and observation of friendly forces. The purpose of suppression during breaching operations is to protect forces reducing and maneuvering through an obstacle. Effective suppression is a mission-critical task performed during any breaching operation. Successful suppression generally triggers the rest of the actions at the obstacle. Fire control measures ensure that all fires are synchronized with other actions at the obstacle. Although suppressing the enemy overwatching the obstacle is the mission of the support force, the breach force should provide additional suppression against an enemy that the support force cannot effectively suppress.
2. Obscure - Obscuration must be employed to protect forces conducting obstacle reduction and the passage of assault forces. Obscuration hampers enemy observation and target acquisition by concealing friendly activities and movement. Obscuration smoke deployed on or near the enemy’s position minimizes its vision. Screening smoke employed between the reduction area and the enemy conceals movement and reduction activities. It also degrades enemy ground and aerial observations. Obscuration must be carefully planned to provide maximum degradation of enemy observation and fires, but it must not significantly degrade friendly fires and control.
3. Secure - Friendly forces secure reduction areas to prevent the enemy from interfering with obstacle reduction and the passage of the assault force through lanes created during the reduction. Security must be effective against outposts and fighting positions near the obstacle and against overwatching units as necessary. The far side of the obstacle must be secured by fires or be occupied before attempting any effort to reduce the obstacle. The attacking unit’s higher headquarters is responsible for isolating the breach area by fixing adjacent units, attacking enemy reserves in depth, and providing counterfire support.
• Identifying the extent of the enemy’s defenses is critical before selecting the appropriate technique to secure the point of breach. If the enemy controls the point of breach and cannot be adequately suppressed, the force must secure the point of breach before it can reduce the obstacle.
• The breach force must be resourced with enough maneuver assets to provide local security against the forces that the support force cannot sufficiently engage. Elements within the breach force that secure the reduction area may also be used to suppress the enemy once reduction is complete. The breach force may also need to assault to the far side of the breach and provide local security so the assault element can seize its initial objective.
4. Reduce - Reduction is the creation of lanes through or over an obstacle to allow an attacking force to pass. The number and width of lanes created varies with the enemy situation, the assault force’s size and composition, and the scheme of maneuver. The lanes must allow the assault force to rapidly pass through the obstacle. The breach force will reduce, proof (if required), mark, and report lane locations and the lane-marking method to higher command headquarters. Follow-on units will further reduce or clear the obstacle when required. Reduction cannot be accomplished until effective suppression and obscuration are in place, the obstacle has been identified, and the point of breach is secure.
5. Assault - A breaching operation is not complete until:
• Friendly forces have assaulted to destroy the enemy on the far side of the obstacle as the enemy is capable of placing or observing direct and indirect fires on the reduction area.
• Battle handover with follow-on forces has occurred, unless no battle handover is planned.