Sniper veils are a quick concealment system made out of a see through mesh that can be draped over the body, head and weapon to break up the shooters shape/silhouette. The pictured sniper veil is a 60"x96" piece of material that can be cut into smaller pieces for different camouflage applications, and can be purchased for under $10 on Amazon.com. This material is also excellent for camouflaging equipment left at a rally point. Buy the material pattern that best matches the vegetation in your area.
"Relative superiority, that is, the skillful concentration of superior strength at the decisive point, is much more frequently based on the correct appraisal of this decisive point, on suitable planning from the start; which leads to an appropriate disposition of forces, and on the resolution needed to sacrifice nonessentials for the sake of essentials."
Environmental conditions and equipment limitations (lack of night vision or thermal scopes) that prevent a firer's ability to observe and engage targets during reduced visibility such as darkness, fog, smoke or dust must be mitigated by using "Field Expedients." Field expedients greatly assist an individual's ability to place effective fire on a predetermined target. When placing key weapon systems, gunners must always place reference stakes to assist in orienting weapons towards enemy avenues of approach, obstacles to be covered, predetermined targets or final protective lines. Stakes made out of sturdy tree branches or other material provide gunners a simple reference system to direct fires in a manner that can suppress or destroy the enemy to disrupt their advance. Stakes should be carried by all individual's assigned to key weapons. FM 3-22.68 Crew Served Machine Guns 5.56 and 7.62 (July 2006) provides the following key definitions and diagrams for "Field Expedient" methods for orienting key weapons.
In the absence of other means, the gunner can lay the machine gun for and engage predetermined targets using field expedients. (These methods are less effective than the traversing bar and T&E (Traversing and Elevating) mechanism methods.)
1. Base Stake Technique - Use a base stake to define sector limits and provide the lay for the Final Protective Line (FPL) or predetermined targets along a primary or secondary sector limit. This technique is effective in all visibility conditions.
• Define the sector limits by laying the gun for direction along one sector limit and emplacing a stake along the outer edge of the folded bipod legs. Rotate the legs slightly on the receiver so you can take up the “play.” Use the same procedure to place a stake on the opposite sector limit.
• Lay the machine gun along the FPL by moving the muzzle of the machine gun to a sector limit. Adjust for elevation by driving a stake into the ground, so that the top of the stake is under the gas cylinder extension. Allow a few mils of depression to cover irregularities in the terrain.
• Lay the machine gun to engage other targets within a sector limit in a primary sector the same as previously described, but keep the elevation fixed.
2. Notched-Stake or Tree-Crotch Technique - Use the notched-stake or tree-crotch technique (Figure 5-24) with the bipod mount to engage predetermined targets within a sector or to define sector limits. This technique is effective during all levels of visibility, and it requires little additional material.
• Drive either a notched stake or tree crotch into the ground where you expect targets to appear. Place the stock of the machine gun in the nest of the stake or crotch. Adjust the weapon to hit the selected targets and to define your sector limits. Note: If notched stakes and crotches are unavailable, use tent poles. You need four poles for the left and right limits and extra poles for target areas. Drive two poles in the ground in the shape of an "X," and then place the stock in the "X."
• Dig shallow, curved trenches or grooves for the bipod feet. The trenches let you rotate the bipod feet as you move the stock from one "X" or stake to another.
3. Horizontal Log or Board Technique - Use this technique with the bipod or tripod mount to mark sector limits and engage wide targets. This technique is also good in all visibility conditions, and it works best on level terrain.
a. Bipod-Mounted Machine Gun - Place a log or board beneath the stock of the weapon so the stock can slide across it freely. Dig shallow, curved trenches or grooves for the bipod feet. This lets you rotate the feet as you move the stock along the log or board. To mark the sector limits, notch or place stops on the log or board. When you fire,
use the bipod firing position and grip.
b. Tripod-Mounted Machine Gun - Place a log or board beneath the barrel, positioning it so that the barrel, when resting on the log or board is at the proper elevation for grazing fire. Marks the sector limits, when appropriate, as described for the bipod in the preceding paragraph. Use this technique only if you have no T&E mechanism.
Anyone involved in outdoor activities should seriously consider picking up a USMC ILBE MARPAT (Marine Pattern) Main Pack and Assault Pack. The pictured Gen II ILBE (Improved Load Bearing Equipment) shows the main pack with the attached smaller assault pack. When originally issued the complete system cost over $900, but now can be purchase for under $80 shipped from most vendors on Ebay. I expect these ILBE packs to sell out quickly to secondary market vendors looking to turn a quick profit, so purchase the packs when funds become available. One of the great features about this pack are the vertical zippers along both sides of the system that allows access to your gear in the main compartment without unpacking your equipment.
The following is a basic item description used by most Ebay vendors. The ILBE main and assualt packs are designed by ARCTERYX and manufactured in the United States by Propper International for the US Military. The system was created by Arcteryx Law Enforcement and Armed Forces (LEAF) program and was intended to replace the ALICE and MOLLE systems currently in use. The ILBE is a durable and lightweight means of transporting clothing and equipment with the Main Pack Capacity of 4500 cu. in. rated to carry up to 120 pounds of equipment, the Assault Pack Capacity is1500 cu. in. rated to carry an additional 40 of pounds equipment. The ILBE system consists of three main parts, the Main Pack, the Hydration System (not pictured), and the Assault Pack (which can be used as a stand alone pack). The Gen II pack has the coyote brown padding and buckles (Gen I packs have black compontents), and is produced in the Digital Woodland Camo Marine Pattern (MARPAT). The key feature to the pack's comfort is its internal frame with 2 metal ribs on the outer sides and 2 larger spars in the middle. The spars are already shaped to fit most people’s backs but can be custom bent if needed. The pack has soft padding against the carriers back, on the hip belt, and shoulder straps. The wide hip belt displaces the weight around the body evenly. The shoulder straps can be adjusted to custom fit the body and the sternum strap can be raised or lowered to fit both men and women. Four compression straps on each side can be adjusted for different size loads to keep your gear in place throughout your hike. Lower pockets on each side of the pack make nice rests when carrying longer items, or hold extra water bottles. The back and sides of the pack have several sewn on strips of webbing allowing the ability to customize your pack with MOLLE accessories, and a compartment to hold a hydration system. When not in use, it can be rolled down and snapped in place. The main compartment is protected by a corded dust cover which can also be clipped closed. The lid covers the dust cover, provides rain protection, has a zippered compartment and additional MOLLE webbing. The main compartment has provision for a radio pouch (purchased separately), and a center flap which can be used to separate it into upper and lower halves.
Component Stock Numbers:
1. ILBE MAIN PACK: NSN# 8465-01-515-8620
2. ILBE LID: NSN# 8465-01-515-8643
3. SHOULDER STRAPS: NSN# 8465-01-515-8647
4. IBLE WAIST BELT: NSN# 8465-01-515-8270
5. ILBE ASSAULT PACK: NSN# 8465-01-515-8615
6. SHOULDER STRAPS: NSN# 8465-01-515-8647
7. HYDRATION CARRIER: NSN# 8465-01-531-1753
8. RADIO POUCH: NSN# 8465-01-515-8636
All individuals must understand the marksmanship modifications and techniques required to effectively engage moving targets. If there is no access to a moving target range, the provided information and diagrams at a minimum should be discussed as part of any marksmanship rehearsal/question and answer session. Classroom discussions allow individuals the chance to better understand appropriate lead requirements for engaging targets when moving at different speeds and angles.
FM 3-22.9 Rifle Marksmanship M16-/M4 - Series Weapons Aug'08, provides the following detailed narrative for training the key principles for engaging moving targets. In combat situations, enemy Soldiers do not stand still; they rush from one covered or concealed position to another. While making the rush, enemy Soldiers present rapidly moving targets. Moving targets are open to aimed fire at two points in the rush: as the target begins to gain speed (at the beginning) and as it slows down to a new position.
Modifications for Moving Target Engagements - Soldiers in combat do not know if their next target will be stationary or moving; they must fire immediately at whatever target presents itself. Trainers should consider the following when conducting moving target engagement instruction:
• More dispersion and erratic shots are expected when Soldiers are trained to hit moving targets.
• Considering the environment and the variables of the weapon and ammunition, well-trained Soldiers should be able to hit 300-meter stationary silhouette targets.
• When the target is moving laterally, well-trained Soldiers may only hit 150-meter targets 7 out of 10 times. This is considered an acceptable performance.
Modifications to the Fundamentals for Engaging Stationary Targets:
• Steady position.
• Breath control.
• Trigger squeeze.
1. Steady Position - When firing at moving targets, firers should assume the standard supported firing position, but be flexible so that they can track any target in the sector. When a target is moving directly at the firer, directly away from the firer, or at a slight angle, the Soldier engages the target without changing his firing position. Consider the following aspects of firing at moving targets:
• When targets are moving laterally, only minor changes are needed to allow effective target engagement.
• Most moving targets are missed in the horizontal plane (firing in front of or behind the target) and not in the vertical plane (firing too low or too high).
• Body Part Modifications for a steady position when firing at moving targets.
- Nonfiring Hand - Grip the weapon more tightly with the nonfiring hand, and apply more pressure to the rear. This helps to maintain positive control of the weapon and steady it for rapid trigger action.
- Nonfiring-Side Elbow - Lift the nonfiring-side elbow from the support position only to maintain a smooth track.
- Firing Hand - Apply more rearward pressure to the pistol grip to steady the weapon during trigger squeeze.
- Firing-Side Elbow - Lift the firing-side elbow from support only to help maintain a smooth track. NOTE: The weapon pocket in the shoulder and the stock weld are the same as for stationary targets.
2. Aiming - When aiming at moving targets, Soldiers must apply precise lead rules, and in turn, Soldiers must accurately estimate speed, angle, and range to the target to apply precise lead rules. Then, he must apply the single-lead rule in order to place effective fire on combat targets. The procedures used to engage moving targets vary as the angle and speed of the target vary. For example, when a target is moving directly at the firer, stationary target procedures apply. However, for a close, fast-moving target at a 90-degree angle, the weapon and firer's entire upper body must be free from support so the target can be tracked.
a. Lead Requirements Aiming directly at a 300-meter target moving 8 miles per hour at a 90-degree angle would result in missing it; this type of target covers 4 ½ feet while the bullet is traveling toward him. To hit the target, the Soldier must apply target lead (Figure 7-18) and understand how target lead and bullet speed relate to the range, angle, and speed of the target. To hit the target depicted, the Soldier must aim and fire at position D when the target is at position A.
b. Single-Lead Rule - The single-lead rule says: To hit a target moving laterally, place the trailing edge of the front sightpost at the target's center (Figure 7-19). This rule also provides that the lead increases as the range to the target increases (Figure 7-20). NOTE: At 100 meters, the rule begins to break down for targets moving at slight and large angles.
EXAMPLE: "As Figure 7-20 depicts, the front sightpost covers about 1.6 inches at 15 meters and about 16 inches at 150 meters. Since the center of the front sightpost is the actual point of aim, placing the trailing edge of the front sightpost at the target's center provides a .8-inch lead on a 15-meter target and an 8-inch lead on a target at 150 meters. This provides a dead-center hit on a 15-meter target moving at 7 miles per hour at a 25-degree angle because the target moves .8 inches between the time that the weapon is fired and the time that the bullet arrives at the target. A 150-meter target moving at 7 miles per hour at a 25-degree angle moves 8 inches between the time
the weapon is fired and the bullet arrives."
c. Target Speed - Figure 7-21 reflects the differences in lateral speeds for various angles of target movement for a target traveling at 8 miles per hour at a distance of 150 meters from the firer. The angle of target movement is the angle between the target/firer line and the target’s direction of movement. An 8-mile-per-hour target moves 24 inches during the bullet’s flight time. If the target is moving on a 15-degree angle, it moves 6 inches (the equivalent of 2 miles per hour). Since the target lead is half the perceived width of the front sightpost, at 100 meters, the standard sight provides 5.4 inches of lead for M16A1/2/3/4 rifles and M4 carbines (Table 7-14).
d. Target Distance - The front sightpost covers only a small part of close-in targets, providing hits on close targets moving at any angle and any speed. However, if the lead rule is applied on more distant targets moving at a slight angle—for example, 5 degrees at 100 meters—the bullet strikes about 4 inches forward of the target's center. Soldiers must be taught to fire at targets as though they are stationary until lateral movement is observed (15 degrees). The rule provides for many speed/angle combinations that place the bullet within 2 inches of the target's center (Table 7-14). Since the Soldier is expected to fire a 12-inch group on moving targets at 100 meters, the rule provides for hits on the majority of targets. Even the worst case (a 90-degree target moving at 8 miles per hour) would result in the shot group's center being located 9.8 inches behind the target's center. If bullets were evenly distributed in a 12-inch group, this would result in hitting the target 40 percent of the time. Soldiers should be taught to increase their lead if they miss the target, which increases their probability of hitting all targets. For example, if target exhibits much lateral movement and the Soldier feels that he has missed the target by applying the lead rule and firing fundamentals, he should increase his lead. The training program must be simple and provide Soldiers with information relevant to improving their performance in combat. It should address the following topics:
• Soldiers should understand and apply the single-lead rule in the absence of more information.
• Soldiers should engage moving targets coming toward them or on a slight angle (0 to 15 degrees) as stationary targets.
• Information should be presented and practice allowed on applying additional lead to targets for Soldiers who demonstrate this aptitude.
e. Target Angle - The single-lead rule does not apply to targets moving at small and large angles (Table 7-15). A walking enemy Soldier at 250 meters is hit dead center when he is moving at 40 degrees. Hits can be obtained if he is moving on any angle between 15 and 75 degrees. When he is running, a center hit is obtained when the target is on an angle of 18 degrees; misses occur when he exceeds an angle of 30 to 35 degrees. The information provided in Figure 7-21 and Table 7-15 is designed to enhance instructor understanding so proper concepts are presented during instruction. For example, a target at 100 meters moving at 6 miles per hour receives a center hit when moving at 29 degrees. When moving at an angle less than 29 degrees, the bullet strikes somewhat in front of the target's center. When moving at an angle of more than 29 degrees, the bullet strikes somewhat behind the target's center.
f. Tracking - Tracking is a more accurate technique of engaging targets used by experienced firers. It involves establishing and maintaining a point of aim in relationship to the target and moving with the target to maintain that sight picture, while squeezing the trigger. As the target moves, this technique puts the firer in position for a second shot if the first one misses.
g. Trapping - Trapping involves setting up a point of aim forward of the target and along the target path. The trigger is squeezed as the target comes into the sights. This technique works on targets with slow lateral movement. It does not require tracking skills, but the firer must know precisely when the weapon is going to fire. NOTE: Soldiers who can squeeze the trigger without reacting to the weapon firing may fire better using this technique.
3. Breath Control - This fundamental is unchanged.
4. Trigger Squeeze - To use proper trigger squeeze--
• Apply rearward pressure on the handguard and pistol grip to hold the weapon steady while applying pressure to the trigger.
• Squeeze the trigger quickly (almost a controlled jerk).
• Apply heavy pressure on the trigger (at least half of the pressure it takes to make the weapon fire) before squeezing.
"I wanted to invent an engine that could run for ever. I could have developed a new train, had I stayed in the railway. It would have looked like the AK-47 though."
Purchase Wiha's 3/16 Narrow Profile Precision nut driver for removing and installing the front sight screws on Glock and other pistols. Of my three front sight tools this thin walled driver works the best. The best feature about this driver is you apply downward pressure with your index finger while turning the driver with your thumb and middle finger. This driver can be purchased for under $7 shipped on Amazon.com. As other reviews on this item reference, this tool is a much higher quality alternative then other tools on the market and will probably last forever.
Enhance the effectiveness of your helmets with the use of "Eyewear Retention Straps." Pictured is a set of Eyewear Retention Straps (NSN: 8415-01-521-8802) that are secured to the backside of my Advanced Combat Helmet (ACH) in order to hold my safety goggles. The use of retention straps are key to securely holding your goggles during use. Many ACHs are being sold without the retention straps which results in goggle straps twisting or falling off during use. Retention straps are available at most major online vendors for under $5. For protection in any environment I prefer impact resistant goggles due to their additional face coverage and face protection against both ballistic and blunt force trauma.
Pictured is a iProtect Firearm Light Elite HP190 installed on my Glock 17. This light is well built and can be purchased at most online vendors or at Walmart for under $40. The 190 lumen led, lights any room well and includes both a light and a strobe feature. The on/off slide switch is mounted to the rear of the light and can easily be reached by both index fingers. I also like the well designed mount with its integrated spring tension locking plate that fits snugly on the rail. This is a great addition to any home protection weapon.
"The Constitution shall never be construed... to prevent the people of the United States who are peaceable citizens from keeping their own arms."